Solidity Programming Language Cheatsheet

Basic cheatsheet for Solidity, a programming language for writing smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain.

1. Data Types:

// Integers
uint256 myNumber = 123;
int256 myInt = -456;

// Address
address myAddress = 0x5AEDA56215b167893e80B4fE645BA6d5Bab767DE;

// Boolean
bool isTrue = true;

// String
string myString = "Hello, Solidity!";

2. Variables and State Variables:

// Local variable
function localVar() public pure returns (uint256) {
    uint256 localVar = 100;
    return localVar;

// State variable
uint256 public stateVar = 200;

3. Functions:

// Function with parameters and return value
function add(uint256 a, uint256 b) public pure returns (uint256) {
    return a + b;

// Function visibility
function internalFunction() internal {
    // code

4. Control Structures:

// If statement
if (condition) {
    // code
} else {
    // code

// For loop
for (uint256 i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
    // code

5. Modifiers:

// Modifier definition
modifier onlyOwner() {
    require(msg.sender == owner, "Not the owner");
    _; // Continue executing the function

// Using modifier
function changeOwner(address newOwner) public onlyOwner {
    owner = newOwner;

6. Events:

// Event definition
event MyEvent(address indexed sender, uint256 value);

// Triggering event
function triggerEvent(uint256 value) public {
    emit MyEvent(msg.sender, value);

7. Structs:

// Struct definition
struct Person {
    string name;
    uint256 age;

// Using struct
Person public myPerson = Person("Alice", 25);

8. Mappings:

// Mapping definition
mapping(address => uint256) public balances;

// Using mapping
function updateBalance(uint256 newBalance) public {
    balances[msg.sender] = newBalance;

9. Inheritance:

// Base contract
contract Base {
    uint256 internalVar;

    function setInternalVar(uint256 _var) internal {
        internalVar = _var;

// Derived contract
contract Derived is Base {
    function setVar(uint256 _var) public {

10. Error Handling:

// Require statement
function requireExample(uint256 x) public pure {
    require(x > 0, "Value must be greater than zero");

// Revert statement
function revertExample(uint256 y) public pure {
    if (y == 0) {
        revert("Cannot divide by zero");

Official Reference

1. What is Solidity, and why is it essential for blockchain development?

Answer: Solidity is a programming language designed for developing smart contracts on blockchain platforms like Ethereum. It is crucial for blockchain development as it allows developers to write code that runs on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), enabling the creation of decentralized applications (DApps) and self-executing smart contracts.

2. How do I declare and initialize variables in Solidity?

Answer: In Solidity, you can declare and initialize variables using the following syntax:

3. Can I use loops in Solidity? If so, what types of loops are available?

Answer: Yes, Solidity supports loops. The two primary types of loops are the for loop and the while loop. Here’s a brief example of each:

4. How can I handle exceptions and errors in Solidity?

Answer: Solidity provides the require and assert statements for handling exceptions and errors. The require statement is commonly used to validate conditions, and if the condition is not met, it throws an exception and reverts changes. The assert statement is used for checking invariants that should never be false and triggers an exception if the condition is not satisfied.

5. How can I transfer Ether between addresses in Solidity?

Answer: Solidity provides the transfer and send functions for transferring Ether between addresses. Here’s a simple example