Python OOPS CheatSheet

Python is a versatile and powerful programming language, and one of its key strengths lies in its support for Object-Oriented Programming (OOP). OOP is a paradigm that enables developers to organize and structure their code in a more modular and scalable way. Whether you’re a beginner or an experienced Python developer, having a handy cheatsheet for Python OOP can be immensely helpful. Let’s dive into the essential concepts and syntax you need to know.

1. Classes and Objects

class MyClass:
    # Class attribute
    class_variable = "I am a class variable"

    def __init__(self, parameter1, parameter2):
        # Instance attributes
        self.parameter1 = parameter1
        self.parameter2 = parameter2

    def instance_method(self):
        # Instance method
        return f"Instance method called with {self.parameter1} and {self.parameter2}"

# Creating an object of MyClass
obj = MyClass("value1", "value2")
  • class: Defines a class.
  • __init__: Constructor method called when an object is created.
  • self: Refers to the instance of the class.
  • Instance attributes: Variables specific to each instance.
  • Class attributes: Variables shared among all instances.

2. Inheritance

class ChildClass(MyClass):
    def __init__(self, parameter1, parameter2, child_parameter):
        # Calling the parent class constructor
        super().__init__(parameter1, parameter2)
        self.child_parameter = child_parameter

    def child_method(self):
        return f"Child method called with {self.child_parameter}"

# Creating an object of ChildClass
child_obj = ChildClass("value1", "value2", "child_value")
  • super(): Calls the method from the parent class.

3. Encapsulation

class EncapsulationExample:
    def __init__(self):
        # Private variable
        self.__private_variable = "I am private"

    def get_private_variable(self):
        return self.__private_variable

    def set_private_variable(self, new_value):
        self.__private_variable = new_value
  • __variable: Private variable that can only be accessed within the class.

4. Polymorphism

class Dog:
    def speak(self):
        return "Woof!"

class Cat:
    def speak(self):
        return "Meow!"

def animal_speak(animal):
    return animal.speak()

# Polymorphic function call
dog_instance = Dog()
cat_instance = Cat()

print(animal_speak(dog_instance))  # Output: Woof!
print(animal_speak(cat_instance))  # Output: Meow!
  • Polymorphism allows objects of different types to be treated as objects of a common type.

5. Abstraction

from abc import ABC, abstractmethod

class AbstractClass(ABC):
    def abstract_method(self):

class ConcreteClass(AbstractClass):
    def abstract_method(self):
        return "Abstract method implementation in ConcreteClass"
  • ABC: Abstract Base Class module.
  • @abstractmethod: Decorator to define abstract methods.

This cheatsheet provides a quick reference for some of the fundamental concepts in Python OOP. Remember, practicing these concepts by writing code is essential to grasp them fully. As you continue to build projects and gain experience, you’ll develop a deeper understanding of how to leverage the power of OOP in Python.


1. What is the difference between a class and an object in Python?

In Python, a class is a blueprint for creating objects. It defines attributes and methods that the objects created from the class will have. An object, on the other hand, is an instance of a class. It represents a concrete occurrence based on the structure defined by the class.

2. How do you achieve multiple inheritance in Python?

Python supports multiple inheritance, allowing a class to inherit attributes and methods from more than one parent class. To implement multiple inheritance, simply list the parent classes in the class definition, separated by commas. However, it’s important to manage potential conflicts and use the super() function appropriately to call methods from parent classes.
class ChildClass(ParentClass1, ParentClass2): # Class definition

3. What is encapsulation, and why is it important in Python OOP?

Encapsulation is a fundamental concept in OOP that involves bundling the data (attributes) and the methods that operate on the data within a single unit called a class. It helps in hiding the internal details of the object and only exposing what is necessary. Encapsulation enhances code modularity, promotes code organization, and prevents external code from directly accessing or modifying internal data.

4. Can you explain the difference between instance attributes and class attributes?

Instance attributes are specific to each instance of a class and are defined within the constructor (__init__) using the self keyword. Class attributes, on the other hand, are shared among all instances of a class. They are defined outside the constructor and are typically placed at the class level. Any modification to a class attribute is reflected in all instances, while changes to instance attributes only affect the specific instance.

5. What is the purpose of abstract classes in Python OOP?

Abstract classes in Python are created using the ABC (Abstract Base Class) module and the @abstractmethod decorator. An abstract class can have abstract methods, which are methods without a defined implementation in the abstract class itself. The purpose of abstract classes is to provide a common interface for its subclasses. Subclasses must implement the abstract methods, ensuring a consistent structure across different classes that share a common base.