Zig Programming Language Cheatsheet

Zig is a modern programming language designed for simplicity, performance, and reliability. With a focus on low-level programming and system-level development, Zig has gained popularity for its clear syntax, zero-cost abstractions, and emphasis on developer control. This cheatsheet serves as a quick reference guide for programmers looking to get started with Zig or those who want a handy reference for its key features.

Find more in-depth Zig Cheatsheet.

Hello, World!

const std = @import("std");

pub fn main() void {
    std.debug.print("Hello, {}!\n", .{"world"});
}

Basics

Comments

// This is a single-line comment

/*
   This is a
   multi-line comment
*/

Variables

const x: i32 = 42;
var y: f64 = 3.14;

Constants

const Pi: f64 = 3.14159265359;

Strings

const message = "Hello, Zig!";
const interpolated_message = "The value of x is {}.\n".format(x);

Control Flow

If Statement

if x > 10 {
    // Code here
} else if x < 0 {
    // Code here
} else {
    // Code here
}

Switch Statement

switch x {
    1 => // Code here
    2 | 3 => // Code here for 2 or 3
    else => // Code here for other cases
}

Loop

while x > 0 : (x -= 1) {
    // Code here
}

Functions

Function Declaration

fn add(x: i32, y: i32) i32 {
    return x + y;
}

Anonymous Functions

const add = fn(x: i32, y: i32) i32 {
    return x + y;
};

Variadic Functions

fn printNumbers(#[noalias] nums: i32...) void {
    // Code here
}

Error Handling

Option Type

const std = @import("std");

const Result = std.Result;

fn divide(x: f64, y: f64) Result(f64, "cannot divide by zero") {
    if y == 0.0 {
        return Result.Error("cannot divide by zero");
    }
    return Result.Ok(x / y);
}

Custom Error Union

const std = @import("std");

const MyError = std.MyError;

pub fn divide(x: f64, y: f64) !f64 {
    if y == 0.0 {
        return MyError.DivideByZero;
    }
    return x / y;
}

Memory Management

Allocating Memory

const allocator = std.testing.allocator;

const ptr = allocator.alloc(u8, 10);

Deallocating Memory

allocator.free(u8, ptr, 10);

Structs and Enums

Struct Declaration

const Point = struct {
    x: f64,
    y: f64,
};

Enum Declaration

const Result = enum {
    Ok,
    Err,
};

Concurrency

Async Functions

const std = @import("std");

pub fn asyncMain() void {
    const result = async {
        // Async code here
        return 42;
    };
    std.debug.print("Result: {}\n", .{result});
}

Channels

const std = @import("std");

const Channel = std.Channel;

pub fn main() void {
    const channel = Channel(i32).init(std.testing.allocator);

    go async {
        await channel.send(42);
    };

    const value = await channel.receive();
    std.debug.print("Received: {}\n", .{value});
}

This Zig programming language cheatsheet provides a quick overview of essential features and syntax elements. Use it as a reference to accelerate your Zig programming journey. For more in-depth information, be sure to consult the official Zig documentation at ziglang.org.

FAQ

What is Zig, and why should I use it?

Zig is a programming language designed for simplicity, performance, and reliability. Its focus on low-level programming and system-level development makes it suitable for tasks where control and efficiency are crucial.

How does Zig differ from other programming languages?

Zig distinguishes itself through its clear syntax, zero-cost abstractions, and emphasis on developer control. It aims to provide a modern alternative for systems programming with a focus on safety without sacrificing performance.

Is Zig suitable for both high-level and low-level programming?

Yes, Zig is versatile and can be used for both high-level and low-level programming. It supports features like memory management, error handling, and concurrency while providing low-level control akin to languages like C.

What is Zig’s approach to error handling?

Zig offers multiple error handling mechanisms, including an Option type and custom error unions. Developers can choose the method that best fits their application, providing a balance between simplicity and control.

How active is the Zig community, and where can I find resources?

The Zig community is actively growing, and you can find resources, documentation, and engage with other developers on the official Zig website (ziglang.org). The community-driven nature ensures continuous improvements and support for Zig programmers.