In this tutorial, we are going to learn about basic components of computer organization.

A computer is a fast electronic calculating machine that accepts (data) digitized input information, processes it according to a list of internally stored instructions, and outputs the results. Programs are lists of instructions, while memory is internal storage. The way a computer system is organized determines how it is designed such that all of the catalogued tools can be used.

Functioning Unit of Computers:

The input, memory, arithmetic logic unit (ALU), output, and control units are the five functionally independent major sections of a computer.

Input Unit in Computer

Through input devices, the source program/high level language program/coded information/simply data goes to a computer. The most prevalent type is the keyboard. When we press a key, one word or number turns into binary code and goes to memory or a processor through a cable.

Memory Unit

Its purpose is to store data and programs. There are essentially two types.

Primary memory

Secondary memory

Unit of arithmetic logic (ALU)

Most computer operations, such as addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication, are performed in the processor’s ALU. The operands are read from memory and stored in registers, which are basically high-speed storage elements. The procedure is then carried out in the order specified by the instructions. Other devices attached to a computer system are many times slower than the control and ALU. This allows a single processor to handle several external devices for instance keyboards, screens, magnetic and optical discs, sensors, and other mechanical controllers.

Output Unit in Computer

These are the input unit’s polar opposites. Its primary function is to communicate the processed results to the rest of the world. For instance printers, speakers, and monitors.

Control Unit

It is the nerve center that transmits messages to and senses the status of other units. The control unit basically generates the real timing signals that govern data transfer between the input unit, processor, memory, and output unit.

Structure of The Bus :

The simplest and most used method of connecting various computer components. It arranges computer so that all of its units can handle one full word of data at a time in order to operate at a decent speed. A bus is basically a collection of wires that act as a connecting point for multiple devices. The bus have lines for address and control also.

Performance of Computer :

The most essential indicator of a computer’s performance is how rapidly it can run programs. The architecture of a computer’s hardware influences the speed with which it runs programs. It is crucial to design the compiler, the machine instruction set, and the hardware in a coordinated manner for optimal performance. The whole time it takes to run the program is the elapsed time. It is a measure of the computer system’s overall performance. The speed of the CPU, disc, and printer all have an impact. The processor time is the amount of time it takes to execute an instruction.