RISC and CISC in Computer Organization

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) architecture operates the capacity to function from “Instruction Set Architecture” to where it was designed. Reduced instruction set computing (RISC) and Complex instruction set computing (CISC) are basically two architectural designs for CPUs. Intel uses Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC), while Apple uses Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC).

RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Architecture) :

The goal is to make hardware simpler by employing an instruction set that consists of only a few basic processes for loading, evaluating, and saving data. A store command does the same thing as a load command: it stores the data.

Characteristics of RISC –

RISC has a simpler instruction set, which means simpler instruction decoding.
Instruction comes in the form of a single word.
It takes only a single clock cycle to execute an instruction.
Registers for a variety of purposes are there.
Modes of Addressing that are easy to understand.
There are fewer data kinds.
It is possible to build a pipeline.

Complex Instruction Set Architecture (CISC) –

The basic notion is that a single instruction will handle all loading, evaluating, and storing operations, similar to how a multiplication command will handle data loading, evaluating, and saving.

Characteristics of CISC –

Complex instruction, and hence complex instruction decoding, is a CISC feature.
Instructions are longer than a single word.
It’s possible that an instruction will take more than one clock cycle to complete.
As operations are conducted in memory, there are fewer general-purpose registers.
Modes of Complex Addressing
There are other data types.

RISC and CISC applications :

In high-end applications such as video processing, telephony, and image processing, RISC is useful. Security systems, home automation, and other low-end applications generally employ CISC.

Finally, based on the aforementioned comparison of RISC and CISC, we may infer that we cannot discriminate between the two technologies because they are equally effective in their respective applications. Today, both RISC and CISC designers are working hard to gain a competitive advantage.