Relational Model in DBMS

E.F. Codd proposed the Relational Model to model data in the form of relations or tables. After creating the database conceptual model using an ER diagram, we must transform it to a relational model. We can implement using any RDBMS language ,for example, Oracle SQL or MySQL. What is a Relational Model and how does… Continue Reading »

Generalization, Specialization and Aggregation in ER Model

Generalization, Specialization and Aggregation, are data abstraction mechanisms in the ER model. They are useful to hide specifics of a set of objects. Generalization in ER Model This is similar to a bottom-up method. Here, generally two or more lower-level entities unite to generate a higher-level object. But they must share some features. In principle,… Continue Reading »

Entity Relationship Model in DBMS

Entity Relationship model (ER model) is a high-level data model. This model is useful to specify the data items and relationships for a specific system. It creates the conceptual architecture of a database. It also generates a data view that is relatively simple to construct. In ER modeling, the database structure is represented by an… Continue Reading »

Data Models in DBMS

In this tutorial, we will learn about data models in DBMS. A data model is a set of tools to summarize the database‘s description. The modeling of the data description, data semantics, and data consistency constraints is basically a data model. It gives you the conceptual tools you need to describe a database’s design at… Continue Reading »

Types of Databases

In this tutorial, we are going to learn about types of databases in use, small introduction of them, their properties and examples. Centralized Database It is a centralized database system that stores information in a database. It enables users to access data stored in the system from a variety of locations and through a range… Continue Reading »

Introduction to DBMS Architecture

In this tutorial, we will learn about DBMS architecture. Users and programs may not always be able to directly access and store data in a Database Management system. Depending on its architecture, a Database Management system can be centralized (all data is stored in one area), decentralized (many copies of the database are maintained in… Continue Reading »

Database Management System

In this tutorial, we are going to learn about Database Management System. Data is a collection of one-of-a-kind small bits of information. Text, numbers, media, bytes, and other types of data can all be useful to create it. We can, for example, save on paper or in an electronic memory. A database basically is a… Continue Reading »

I/O Interface in Computer Organization

I/O interface refers to the process of transferring data from internal storage to external I/O devices. Peripherals linked to any computer system interface with the CPU via particular communication lines. These links are useful to bridge the gap between the CPU and the peripheral. Interface units are specific hardware components that sit between the CPU… Continue Reading »

RAM and ROM in Computer Organization

In this tutorial, we are going to learn about RAM and ROM in computer organization. What Are RAM and ROM in Computer Organization RAM (RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY) RAM (Random Access Memory) is the internal memory of the CPU, which stores data, programs, and program results. It’s a read-only memory that stores data until the machine… Continue Reading »

Cache Memory in Computer Organization

Cache memory in computer organization is a speedier and smaller chunk of memory with access times that are as close as registers. Cache memory has a shorter access time than primary memory in a memory hierarchy. Because cache memory is typically relatively little, it basically acts as a buffer. The data or contents of the… Continue Reading »